A street singer entertains the crowd with the illustrated murder ballad or Bänkelsang, entitled "Die Moritat von Mackie Messer" ("Ballad of Mack the Knife"). As the song concludes, a well-dressed man leaves the crowd and crosses the stage. This is Macheath, alias "Mack the Knife".
The story begins in the shop of Jonathan Jeremiah Peachum, the boss of London's beggars, who outfits and trains the beggars in return for a slice of their takings from begging. In the first scene, the extent of Peachum's iniquity is immediately exposed. Filch, a new beggar, is obliged to bribe his way into the profession and agree to pay over to Peachum 50 percent of whatever he made; the previous day he had been severely beaten up for begging within the area of jurisdiction of Peachum's protection racket. This acts as a depiction of capitalist exploitation, in a world where even beggars, individuals at the most exposed and lowest class, are constrained to pay protection.
After finishing with the new man, Peachum becomes aware that his grown daughter Polly did not return home the previous night. Peachum, who sees his daughter as his own private property, concludes that she has become involved with Macheath. This does not suit Peachum at all, and he becomes determined to thwart this relationship and destroy Macheath.
The scene shifts to an empty stable where Macheath himself is preparing to marry Polly once his gang has stolen and brought all the necessary food and furnishings. No vows are exchanged, but Polly is satisfied, and everyone sits down to a banquet. Since none of the gang members can provide fitting entertainment, Polly gets up and sings "Seeräuberjenny", a revenge fantasy in which she is a scullery maid turning pirate queen to order the execution of her bosses and customers. The gang becomes nervous when the Chief of Police, Tiger Brown, arrives, but it's all part of the act; Brown had served with Mack in England's colonial wars and had intervened on numerous occasions to prevent the arrest of Macheath over the years. The old friends duet in the "Kanonen-Song" ("Cannon Song" or "Army Song"). In the next scene, Polly returns home and defiantly announces that she has married Macheath by singing the "Barbarasong" ("Barbara Song"). She stands fast against her parents' anger, but she inadvertently reveals Brown's connections to Macheath which they subsequently use to their advantage.
Polly warns Macheath that her father will try to have him arrested. He is finally persuaded that Peachum has enough influence to do it and makes arrangements to leave London, explaining the details of his bandit "business" to Polly so she can manage it in his absence. Before he leaves town, he stops at his favorite brothel, where he sees his ex-lover, Jenny. They sing the "Zuhälterballade" ("Pimp's Ballad") about their days together, but Macheath doesn't know Mrs Peachum has bribed Jenny to turn him in. Despite Brown's apologies, there's nothing he can do, and Macheath is dragged away to jail. After he sings the "Ballade vom angenehmen Leben" ("Ballad of the Pleasant Life"), another girlfriend, Lucy (Brown's daughter) and Polly show up at the same time, setting the stage for a nasty argument that builds to the "Eifersuchtsduett" ("Jealousy Duet"). After Polly leaves, Lucy engineers Macheath's escape. When Mr Peachum finds out, he confronts Brown and threatens him, telling him that he will unleash all of his beggars during Queen Victoria's coronation parade, ruining the ceremony and costing Brown his job.
Jenny comes to the Peachums' shop to demand her money for the betrayal of Macheath, which Mrs Peachum refuses to pay. Jenny reveals that Macheath is at Suky Tawdry's house. When Brown arrives, determined to arrest Peachum and the beggars, he is horrified to learn that the beggars are already in position and only Mr Peachum can stop them. To placate Peachum, Brown's only option is to arrest Macheath and have him executed. In the next scene, Macheath is back in jail and desperately trying to raise a sufficient bribe to get out again, even as the gallows are being assembled. Soon it becomes clear that neither Polly nor the gang members can, or are willing to, raise any money, and Macheath prepares to die. Then a sudden and intentionally comical reversal: a messenger on horseback arrives to announce that Macheath has been pardoned by the queen and granted a title, a castle and a pension. The cast then sings the Finale, which ends with a plea that wrongdoing not be punished too harshly as life is harsh enough.
Prelude1 Ouverture2 Die Moritat von Mackie Messer ("The Ballad of Mack the Knife" - Ausrufer - Street singer)First Act3 Morgenchoral des Peachum (Peachum's Morning Choral - Peachum, Mrs Peachum)4 Anstatt dass-Song (Instead of Song - Peachum, Mrs Peachum)5 Hochzeits-Lied (Wedding Song - Four Gangsters)6 Seeräuberjenny (Pirate Jenny - Polly)7 Kanonen-Song (Cannon Song - Macheath, Brown)8 Liebeslied (Love Song - Polly, Macheath)9 Barbarasong (Barbara Song - Polly)10 I. Dreigroschenfinale (First Threepenny Finale - Polly, Peachum, Mrs Peachum)Second Act11 Melodram (Melodrama - Macheath)11a Polly's Lied (Polly's Song - Polly)12 Ballade von der sexuellen Hörigkeit (Ballad of Sexual Dependency - Mrs Peachum)13 Zuhälterballade (Pimp's Ballad or Tango Ballad - Jenny, Macheath)14 Ballade vom angenehmen Leben (Ballad of the Pleasant Life - Macheath)15 Eifersuchtsduett (Jealousy Duet - Lucy, Polly)15b Arie der Lucy (Aria of Lucy - Lucy)16 II. Dreigroschenfinale (Second Threepenny Finale - Macheath, Mrs Peachum, Chorus)Third Act17 Lied von der Unzulänglichkeit menschlichen Strebens (Song of the Insufficiency of Human Struggling - Peachum)17a Reminiszenz (Reminiscence)18 Salomonsong (Solomon Song - Jenny)19 Ruf aus der Gruft (Call from the Grave - Macheath)20 Grabschrift (Grave Inscription - Macheath)20a Gang zum Galgen (Walk to Gallows - Peachum)21 III. Dreigroschenfinale (Third Threepenny Finale - Brown, Mrs Peachum, Peachum, Macheath, Polly, Chorus)